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Tommasin et al. 2011

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Combined average spectra of Sy1, HBLR, AGN2, Non Sy, and Starburst galaxies, which was obtained from Tommasin et al. 2011.

Tanaka & Hotokezaka 2013

apj480777f7_hr

They estimated the expected optical and NIR luminosity of nutron mergers, which are the best candidates of gravitational wave sources. The number of detection rate is 0.4-400/yr. Considering the positioning accuracy of gravitational wave is 10-100 deg^2, eletromagnetic follow-up observations are crucial to know the counterpart of gravitational wave detections. A typical observational magnitude is around 22-25 mag at i band, 21-24 mag at z band, and 21-24 mag at JHK band. The emission decays within 10 days.

Alonso-Herrero et al. 2012

The spectral decomposition of Spitzer/IRS spectra into AGN clumpy torus model emission and SB template emission.

The spectral decomposition of Spitzer/IRS spectra into AGN clumpy torus model emission and SB template emission.

(Taken from Figure 1 in Alonso-Herrero et al. 2012)

The fraction of obscured AGN as a function of infrared luminosity.

The fraction of obscured AGN as a function of infrared luminosity.

                                            (Taken from Figure 9 in Alonso-Herrero et al. 2012)
The authors calculated the energy contribution of AGN/SB by decomposing the Spitzer spectra into two components by using AGN clumpy torus model emission and SB template emission.  The fraction of AGN in infrared galaxies increase with infrared luminosity. (Bottom panel) The AGN energy contribution in LIRGs are ~5%, and the contribution increases with infrared luminosity and ~27% in ULIRGs.


Nardini et al. 2010

The fraction of obscured AGN in infrared galaxies as a function of infrared luminosity. Alpha represents the fraction energy contribution of AGN.

The fraction of obscured AGN in infrared galaxies as a function of infrared luminosity. Alpha represents the fraction energy contribution of AGN.

(Taken from Figure 10 in Nardini et al. 2010)

Obscured AGN/SB energy contribution (percentage) to the total infrared luminosity.

Obscured AGN/SB energy contribution (percentage) to the total infrared luminosity.

                                            (Taken from Figure 9 in Nardini et al. 2010)
The authors calculated the energy contribution of AGN/SB by decomposing the Spitzer spectra into two components by using the method of Nardini et al. 2008. (Above panel) The fraction of AGN in infrared galaxies increase with infrared luminosity. (Bottom panel) The AGN energy contribution in LIRGs are <15%, and the contribution increases with infrared luminosity and up to ~60% in extreme case.


Nardini et al. 2008

Spitzer 5-10 um Spectral decomposition of U/LIRGS using AGN/SB templates: One is AGN template with power-law+extinction, the other is SB template taken from Brandl et al.2006

Spitzer 5-10 um Spectral decomposition of U/LIRGS using AGN/SB templates: One is AGN template with power-law+extinction, the other is SB template taken from Brandl et al.2006

                                            (Taken from Figure 2 in Nardini et al. 2008)
Knowing the AGN fraction, or AGN energy contribution in U/LIRGs are important, because the energy sources in U/LIRGs are generally highly obscured. Nardini et al.2008 decomposed the Spitzer 5-10 um spectra of U/LIRGs by using AGN/SB templates. The series of their studies are already published in Nardini et al.2009, and 2010.


Maiolino et al. 2004

nature02930-f2.2

                                            (Taken from Figure 2 in Maiolino et al. 2004)
Generally, in an early universe with the age of <1Gyr, dust production is not sufficient because of the insufficiency of dust production by low-mass stars. The authors mentioned for the first time that high-z QSO with z>6 (<1Gyr) have distinctive extinction curve compared to those of local universe (e.g., SMC). The extinction curve shown in the Figure can be explained by SN-II produced dust extinction curve.

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